Content of Arts Education in Ukraine

Musical art
The content of music education at different stages encompasses musical folklore, classical and modern music, Ukrainian and foreign musical art, which ensures both preservation of the national heritage and integration into the world culture framework.



Music education begins from the preschool age. At kindergartens and other preschool institutions, children’s’ upbringing and education is performed based on Ukrainian folklore, primarily children’s songs, game songs, and round dances. Singing is the chief kind of activity along with which movements and dances to music, playing children’s musical instruments and music listening are also widely used.

Visual art
Under the curriculum, children begin to learn the basics of visual activities, from the early preschool age taking up painting, modeling and appliquéing at children’s preschool institutions. At the lessons devoted to “Visual art” studied as the main subject (1 hour a week) from the 1st though 7th grade, pupils of general education schools acquire the skills to craft images in drawing, painting, sculpture, as well as get acquainted with decorative and applied arts, architecture and design, learn the composition fundamentals. At schools and out-of-school establishments, children choose, in circles of the art profile, certain branches of visual and decorative, and applied arts for their in-depth study according to their interests and needs.

Literature
Literary education in Ukraine is an essential component of arts-aesthetic education and provided at all levels of education. According to the Concept of Literary Education (order of the Ministry of Education and Science, Youth and Sports № 58 of 26.01.2011), there is a national curriculum encompassing Ukrainian and world literature curriculum and an integrated course in literature. The Concept specifies clearly that there is a system of continuing language education in Ukraine supported by the state’s language policy focused on compulsory acquisition of the state Ukrainian language by all citizens (irrespective of nationality, religion, sphere of socio-productive activity); command of the native language by each its speaker; foreign languages skills; fostering language tolerance.

Choreographic art
Choreographic creativity is based on the need of contemporary personality to express his individual self, his emotions, and sentiments, feelings penetrating into imaginative symbology of man’s movements, his mimicry, and gesticulations. In the preschool age children master dancing in the form of the basics of plastic culture: rhythmics, vivid rhythmic exercises, and music rhythm games. Children’s folk games form a significant basis for organization of choreographic creativity. Dances using simple musical instruments, improvisations help the child to feel the tempo-rhythm, imagery of the musical and plot underpinning of dances.

Theatrical art
Theater is an intermedia art, the most “trustworthy” one among all other arts, the closest to life. Just at the theater, the spectator unconsciously identifies himself with the heroes of stage events. Actor – as in no other art – must possess empathy.
Educational capacities of the theatrical art are realized comprehensively – at all age stages and in all elements of the system of arts education – in creativity of preschoolers, in amateur activities of students at school theaters, in performance companies of out-of-school institutions, in the process of organizing sensitivity to performances and gaining knowledge of the theater in out-of-class activities, in student amateur activities, where various synthetic forms of stage creativity are particularly widespread.

Folk art
Ukraine has gathered vast experience of studying the folk and ethnographic heritage. The preschool, school, partly out-of-school and higher education programs include themes introduce children and students to folk culture. The efficiency of studying the folk art depends on professional competency of educators whose work objective is to impart the richest traditions to the young generation. This task is completed within the high school framework by dint of quite a few methods and techniques. This means, to begin with, acquaintance with cultural monuments at lessons of Ukrainian and foreign literature, visual and musical arts, artistic culture, world history, history of Ukraine, course “Man and society” and other subjects. In order for the students to learn the rich genre palette of oral folk arts, integrated lessons are given, for example, those of history of the native land and music, music and literature, literature and history. Educative measures – excursions, folklore expeditions, art exhibitions – play a critical role in familiarization with folk culture.

Applied arts
Initial familiarization of children with decorative an applied arts starts at kindergartens, where they are involved in work with straw, cloth, mold toys from clay and salted dough, and make decorative cuttings. The task of the teachers in such classes is to show children the expressiveness of art materials, to cultivate interest in traditions. Kids become more thoroughly familiar with various forms of decorative and applied arts at art studios, workshops and clubs existing under children’s and youth creativity centers, museums of arts specialization, private workshops of folk craftsmen. School-aged children have access to classes in various fields of decorative and applied arts. Girls are involved in classes in macramé, bead weaving, crochet work, ribbon weaving, quilling, embroidery, floristics, Petrikovka painting, and egg painting. Boys prefer pottery, ceramics, and woodcarving.

Photographic art
The period of the 1990’s is marked by the entry of the Ukrainian photographic school into the modern art environment. In Ukraine, a series of workshops is held; discussions of problems of this branch of art involve renowned foreign researchers, which contribute to recognition of Ukrainian photography in the world. Art and culture experts note keen interest in photography; there appear reviews of exhibitions and photo projects, the genre of photo landscape is revived. Post-modernist thinking does not contradict the traditional significance of motifs of nature typical characteristic of Ukrainian painting of the classic era (flowering gardens, weeping willows on a riverside, an arrow-wood by a house, slender firtrees of the Carpathian Mountains).

Film art
Over more than the century-long period of its development, the Ukrainian film art has accumulated rich traditions, the highest achievements of which are represented by world-renowned director A. P. Dovzhenko. Today, cinematography undergoes significant changes associated with formation of fundamentally new and often contradictory conditions of cultural life. The “outburst” of showy forms witnessed to development and establishment of a new visual era. Certain changes took place in the sphere of cinema at the institutional level -- in the relations among the state, producers and consumers.

Media art
The traditional media include print publications, the press, photography, sound recording, radio, cinematography, television and video. The term “multimedia” means a set of hardware and software tools enabling users to work interactively with different types of information (graphics, text, sound, and video), organized as a single system.